Brucellosis at the Wildlife/Livestock/Human Interface
There are a number of bacterial, viral, and parasitic diseases present at the Wildlife/ livestock/human interface. Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease of importance and highly prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa. The important Brucella species at the wildlife/livestock/ human interface are Brucella arbortus, Brucella suis, and Brucella melitensis. These species have been isolated from humans, livestock (cattle and goats), and wildlife (African buffalo and giraffe). A lot of studies indicated that density, herd size, age of cow, reduced veterinary services like vaccination programs, and geographical area are associated with Brucella prevalence. Studies in developing countries have indicated that the disease is more prominent in the both commercial and communal farming sectors. Access and consumption of contaminated foods and/or occupational exposure remain the significant source of infection to humans. The pathogen transmission of brucellosis is bidirectional in nature; hence, for control efforts to be successful, cooperation is required between livestock owners, animal health officials, and wildlife managers. Globally, trend is moving toward focusing on “one health,” which recognizes that human, animal (both domestic and wild), and ecosystems are tightly linked. The successful management of disease requires an integrated approach where efforts are focused in concert across these domains. Climate change, increased human populations, and increased interaction at wildlife/livestock/human interface have resulted in the change of brucellosis dynamics.